The Tottenham striker doubled the England lead in the 39th minute with a venomous strike towards the near post, capping off a dominant first half from the home side.
Nigeria started off the second stanza strong, when Alex Iwobi pulled a goal back for the Super Eagles, however, England held on for the win.
It took just seven minutes for England to pull ahead, when Cahill headed the Three Lions in front from a Kieran Trippier cross.
Trippier had come close to opening his goalscoring account with England the minute prior, after testing goalkeeper Francis Uzoho with a long-distance effort.
The Three Lions will take on Costa Rica in their final send-off match before the World Cup on June 7 at Elland Road, while Nigeria takes on the Czech Republic the day prior.Follow @MattReedFutbol