It means Lionel Messi misses out on his chance to lead Argentina to a trophy for the first time since he helped the U-23 side win gold at the 2008 Olympics.
Brazil moves on Sunday’s final to face the winner of Wednesday’s semifinal between Peru and two-time reigning champions Chile.
Argentina and Colombia will co-host the tournament next summer.
Dani Alves led the charge for the opener, slipping Firmino into the box. The Liverpool man found his Man City compatriot for the 1-0 advantage.
Brazil controlled the first half but was under the knife in the second half as Messi attempted to rally La Albiceleste.
But Jesus led a lightning counter attack and slid a ball across the 18 to Firmino for an easy goal and a two-marker advantage.